Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Using Timed Essay Samples As Your Primary Source

Using Timed Essay Samples As Your Primary SourceTimed essay samples are not easy to come by. Unfortunately for those of us who have to do a lot of writing, it is not possible to write an essay right after one hour on the day of the exam, so how can you use this sample as your primary source?The main reason that you cannot do a written essay after an hour is that you need to learn all about the rules and structure of an essay, and that takes time. You cannot just leave a deadline on your first day of school or any other setting. In fact, if you do not have much time and can't wait to learn the rules and structure, you are in serious trouble. Therefore, if you want to use a timed essay sample as your primary source, you need to wait until you get the hang of the structure.If you have some time, you can still use the essay samples as a secondary source. First, take some notes about the ideas that you learned. Second, sit down and look at the sample and see if you can find any parts that are confusing you. In this way, you can help yourself to master the structure of the essay, and before you know it, you will have the basics down pat.Third, look at the examples and check if they are too simplistic, which would make the whole task of writing harder. If you do not think that the style is right, then perhaps you should go back to the reading material and read again.The main purpose of the essay sample is to give you a feel for what is required from you. If you follow these three steps, you will be able to do a good job. Finally, go back to the sample. You can look up any areas that are confusing you, and if you find one that really sticks out, you can keep going with that one.There are also other ways that you can use a sample as your primary source. When the test comes, you can put it into practice, and this way you can get rid of some of the stress that can come from writing the paper without a proper exercise. After all, you would not want to end up with an assign ment that you have to do and then forget, would you? That would be a real waste.With a little time, you can learn about the rules and structure of the essay. You can then use the sample as your primary source. It is not too late to learn, and all you need to do is put in some time to practice.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Ted Cruzs Net Worth

Ted Cruzs net worth is about $3.6 million, according to an analysis of the personal financial disclosures he has filed with the U.S. Senate. The Republican from Texas, who aspires to be president of the United States, lists more than 30 assets that, combined, are worth at least $2.2 million and as much as $4.9 million. It is difficult to provide an exact value for Ted Cruzs net worth because members of the Senate are required only to disclose estimates of their holdings. The $3.6 million figure represents an average of minimum and maximum values of his assets in 2016. Though Cruzs net worth well exceeds  the $69,000 net worth of the average American household in the United States, it by no means makes him the wealthiest member  of Congress. A  Center for Responsive Politics analysis  ranked Cruz 41th wealthiest among the U.S. Senates 100 members in 2015. Cruz was ranked 144th among all members of the House and Senate who filed personal financial disclosures for the 2013 calendar year, according to Roll Call.   Among Cruzs earnings in 2016 was advance from book publisher HarperCollins for more than $271,000, according to his personal financial disclosure form for that year, which is publicly available through the U.S. Senate. Cruzs Net Worth Becomes a Campaign Issue Cruzs net worth  became the subject of discussion during his 2012 campaign for U.S. Senate when he and his wife, Heidi, dropped their entire savings of $1.2 million into that election.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Sweetheart, I’d like us to liquidate our entire net worth, liquid net worth, and put it into the campaign,† Cruz said, recounting his conversation for The New York Times in October 2013.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"What astonished me, then and now, was Heidi within 60 seconds said, ‘Absolutely,’ with no hesitation. Despite his status as a millionaire and his position in the wealthiest top-third of Congress, Cruz has been a vocal critic of growing gap between the richest and poorest Americans and bemoaned the fall of the middle class. Responding to Obamas State of the Union speech in 2015, he said: The facts are were facing right now a divided America when it comes to the economy. Its true that the top one percent are doing great under Barack Obama. Today, the top one percent earn a higher share of our national income than any year since 1928. The sad reality is, with big government, under the Obama administration, the rich and powerful, those who walked the corridor of power in the Obama administration have gotten fat and happy. But working men and women across this country, we have the lowest labor force participation since 1978 the reason the unemployment rate keeps falling is millions of people keep dropping out of the work force all together. Comparison to Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama Cruz sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2016. His net worth paled in comparison to that of reported billionaire Donald Trump, who ultimately won the nomination and the presidency. Cruz was also worth less than former U.S. Sen. and  onetime Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. At the time,  Clinton was is worth at least $5.2 million and as much as $25.5 million, according to personal financial disclosures she filed in 2012.   Cruz Made Money As a Private Practice and Government Lawyer Before Cruz entered the  Senate in 2013 he served in statewide office in Texas, as solicitor general. He served in that capacity from 2003 until May of 2008. During  that time he also  taught U.S. Supreme Court Litigation as an adjunct law professor of Law at the University of Texas School of Law. From 2001 to 2003, Cruz worked as the director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission and  as and associate deputy attorney general at the U.S. Department of Justice. He was in private practice before that.Cruzs wife is a managing director at the investment firm Goldman Sachs. Ted Cruzs Salary and Investments As a member of the U.S. Senate, Cruz is paid a base salary of $174,000. He is invested heavily in the oil and gas industries, and holds dozens of other securities and investments, according to the Center for Responsive Politics.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Purpose and Make up of Concrete - 1340 Words

Concrete is an artificial stone-like material used for various structural purposes. It is made by mixing a binding material (as cement) and various aggregates (inert materials), such as sand, stone chips, brick chips, brick chips, pebbles, gravel, shale, etc with water and allowing the mixture to harden by hydration. There are many types of concrete available, created by varying the proportions of the main ingredients below. In this way or by substitution for the cementations and aggregate phases, the finished product can be tailored to its application with varying strength, density, or chemical and thermal resistance properties, Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage. It is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. Importance of Concrete some important of concrete are given below. Concrete is economical when ingredients are readily available. Concrete is a non-combustible material which makes it fire-safe and able to withstand high temperatures. It is resistant to wind, water, rodents, and insects. Hence, concrete is often used for storm shelters. Concrete could be requested in a variety of ways. It could be requested with a considerable measure of fly ash in the mix. Fly ash is a substitute for cement. In the present paper, the addition of fly ash and an expansive agent to the concrete of or a thin layer of fly ash to the interface between steel tube and concrete to improve the compressive strength. More over This paperShow MoreRelatedAn Experiment Transpired Because Of A Fascination With Basketball1084 Words   |  5 Pagesinches, the tested variable was the basketball court surface that gave the basketball the most immense bounce. After testing each surface, the data got averaged out, and based on the statistics, the multi-purpose floor averaged .7 inches more colossal than the hardwood, and 3.7 more than concrete. Introduction â€Å"Playing basketball can be hard work. Players not only have to run around the court, but just dribbling the basketball takes some serious effort, too.† (â€Å"Surface Science: Where Does a BasketballRead MoreA Experiment On Playing Basketball1141 Words   |  5 Pagesbasketball. The tested variable was the basketball court surface that gave the basketball the highest bounce in inches. After testing each surface, the data was averaged. Based on the data, the multi-purpose floor averaged .7 inches higher than the hardwood, which was 3.3 inches higher than the concrete. Introduction â€Å"Playing basketball can be hard work. Players not only have to run around the court, but just dribbling the basketball takes some serious effort, too.† (â€Å"Surface Science: Where Does aRead MoreThe Utilization Purpose Of Lightweight Concrete1287 Words   |  6 Pages2.1.3.2.2. The utilization purpose: Lightweight concrete can also be classified according to the purpose of utilizing as: i) Structural lightweight concrete has cylinder compressive strength at 28 days equal or more than 17 MPa and the approximate density range is about 1400-1800 kg/m3. ii) Masonry concrete (structural / insulating lightweight concrete) has a compressive strength between 7-14 MPa and density range 500-800 kg/m3. iii) Insulating concrete has a compressive strength between 0.7-7 kg/m3Read MoreLab Report On Concrete Of Concrete1284 Words   |  6 PagesConcrete SAMPLING: The first step is to take a test sample from the large batch of concrete. This should be done as soon as discharge of the concrete commences. The sample should be representative of the concrete supplied. The sample is taken in one of two ways: 1. For purposes of accepting or rejecting the load: Sampling after 0.2 m3 of the load has been poured. 2. For routine quality checks: Sampling from three places in the load. Concrete Slump Test: This test is performed to check the consistencyRead MoreCharacteristics And Applications Of Types Of Specialty Concretes : Watertight Concrete ( Wc ) And Self Compacting Concrete1354 Words   |  6 Pagesimprovement of modern architectural functions, higher requirements of concrete have been put forward. Under the circumstance of high technology, concrete technology is developed towards high-strength, high-workability and high durability. Since the 1990s, along with a variety of new cementitious materials, mineral admixtures, superplasticizer and the new development and application of other additives, the production of concrete with good workability, excellent mechanical properties and also high durabilityRead MoreAqueducts Of The Roman Aqueducts1395 Words   |  6 Pagesquestion whether aqueducts were better built than today’s bridges. The word â€Å"aqueduct† is Latin and comes from â€Å"aqua† and â€Å"ducere† meaning â€Å"to lead water†. The Roman aqueducts were a network of channels and pipes built above and below ground with a purpose to carry water across expanses of land. The concept of the Roman aqueducts is simple in theory as water seeks the lowest level of a slope – making it possible to run water down a gradual slant to a destination. The pipes used in aqueducts were mostlyRead MoreCement, A Fine, Soft, Powdery Type Substance1179 Words   |  5 Pages1.3.1. Cement Cement is a fine, soft, powdery-type substance. Concrete is a fine, delicate, fine sort substance. It is produced using a blend of components that are found in natural raw materials, for example, limestone, mud, sand and/or shale. At the point when cement is blended with water, it can tie sand and rock into a hard, strong mass called concrete. Cement is a binder, a utilized as a part of construction that sets and hard and can bind tie different materials together. The most importantRead MoreBuilding A New Parking Garage Essay1223 Words   |  5 Pages CONCRETE ASSIGNMNET 1 Concrete Project Report Introduction We were requested to write a report for a client that are looking to build a new parking garage in the Bloemfontein area. The client also requsted from us to not just advise him/her on what type of concrete to be used, but also to give him/her a broad understanding of the different types of concrete. Some of the aspects that will be discussed in this report are as follows: 1. Special concrete and its application 2Read MoreComponents Of Concrete Mix Designer1363 Words   |  6 Pages2.1 INTRODUCTION The primary objective of every concrete mix designer is to achieve the desired hardened properties of concrete in the most economical way. This aim can be fulfilled if the various concrete ingredients are relatively proportioned to yield an optimized result. In order to comply with ACI recommendations, strength tests are usually performed between 7 and 28 days after the concrete has been placed. This is time consuming and also experimental errors are inevitable because the rightRead MoreFundamentals of Building Construction: The Concrete1661 Words   |  7 Pages What is concrete? Concrete is a composite material used widely in the construction industry. Concrete is basically a mixture of cement, water, aggregates and admixture (sometimes). Cement is a fine gray powder that consists of oxidizes calcium, silicon and aluminum. The aggregate used is normally gravel, crushed stone or sand. Admixture is a solid or liquid substance that gives a certain characteristics of the concrete. The cement reacts with water chemically and binds the aggregates together

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

B2b In SmeS Perspectives And Future Challenges free essay sample

? B2b In Sme? S: Positions And Future Challenges? , Essay, Research Paper Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Purpose and Content The Forrester study ( Feb. 2000 ) in an article entitled? eMarketplaces Boost B2B Trade. ? Predicts that? B2B ( concern to concern ) e-commerce will make $ 2.7 trillion in 2004. While Internet trade between single spouses will go on to boom, eMarketplaces will fuel most of the growing making 53 % of all online concern trade in five years. ? These figures would propose that it is imperative that SME? s embrace the e-commerce universe that is blossoming around them, to disregard it, could be the concern equivalent of harakiri. In this thesis entitled? B2B in SME? s: Positions and Future Challenges? , The chances and challenges faced by SME? s in the B2B environment will be examined in item. Disruptive engineerings and reiterating forms in retailing will be reviewed and the new developing schemes and concern theoretical accounts available utilizing the Internet will be discussed and the benefits they bring to both purchasers and Sellerss will be investigated as portion of the research survey. Primary research will be conducted, analysed, reviewed and presented to exemplify the manner in which SME directors? position B2B commercialism. The research inquiries steering the reported work will be detailed subsequently. 1.2 E-commerce: An Introduction Electronic Commerce ( e-commerce ) is a agency of utilizing the power of computing machines, the Internet and shared package to direct and have merchandise specifications and drawings ; commands, purchase orders and bills ; and any other type of informations that needs to be communicated to clients, providers, employees or the public. ( thirty ) E-commerce is the new, profitable manner to behavior concern which goes beyond the simple motion of information and expands electronic minutess from point-of-sale demands, finding and production programming, right through to invoicing, payment and reception. E-commerce utilizations cardinal criterions and engineerings including Electronic Data Interchange, Technical Data Interchange, Hypertext Mark-up Language, extensile Mark-up Language, and the Standard for Exchange of Product theoretical account informations. E-commerce is made possible through the expanded engineerings of the Internet, the World Wide Web, and Value-Added Networks. The Internet is making unprecedented and apparently infinite chances for both its concerns and clients. Yet it is altering so fast that the velocity of alteration and the sheer figure of picks available to companies frequently overwhelm directors and clients likewise. In add-on to this the regulations of the Web are somewhat different to those of traditional concerns. E-commerce is non constrained by the regulations that have restricted companies historically in the normal codifications of concern behavior. Companies can now put new criterions in profitableness and efficiency. This is turn leads to the consumer, in either the concern to concern ( B2B ) sector or concern to client ( B2C ) sector, acquiring the right merchandise, in the right clip, to the right topographic point for the right monetary value, this will be referred to as the retail merchants mission. ( Thirty ) An extra property of the Internet is that it lacks a cardinal authorization, in other words, there is no? Internet, Inc. ? which controls the Internet. Beyond the assorted government boards that work to set up policies and criterions, the Internet is bound by few regulations and replies to no individual administration. 1.3 Disruptive Technologies ? A riotous engineering enables advanced companies to make new concern theoretical accounts that alter the economic sciences of their industry? . ( Christensen and Bower 1995 ) In retailing the Internet is non the first such break that came with the outgrowth of the section shop and was closely followed by the mail order catalogue. Then followed price reduction section shops and eventually, in the early 1990? s came the Internet, the 4th disrupter. Internet companies such as Amazon.com are altering the manner things are bought and sold. These Internet companies pose powerful menaces to rivals with more conventional concern theoretical accounts. ? As with earlier breaks, Internet retailing has ab initio focused on simple ware. The inquiry is how fast will e-tailers travel upmarket? ? Evans and Wurster ( 1999 ) 1.4 Retailing Forms ? The Past may non state us everything about the hereafter of electronic commercialism but it reveals more than we anticipate? Christensen and Tedlow ( 2000 ) . Retailing since its origin has been all about profitableness. Profitableness is mostly determined by two factors: borders and the frequence at which stocks can be turned over. However, while such breaks change the economic sciences if an industry they do non needfully hold to consequence profitableness. Department shops in the early 1900? s were gaining a gross border of 40 % this coupled with an mean stock list turnover of three times per annum, gave an one-year return on capital invested of 120 % . The price reduction section shops so operated with gross borders of 23 % with one-year stock list turnover of five, giving 115 % , a figure rather similar to their predecessors. The 4th retailing break is now underway, instituted by the Internet, a company like Amazon.com can turn their stock list over a astonishing 25 times a tw elvemonth, a simple generation now determines that a gross border of 5 % is merely necessary to vie with their traditional challengers. It is clearly seeable that the Internet is presenting unusually good on three out of four points of the retail merchant? s mission, with the exclusion being clip. 1.5 Deductions for SME? s in Ireland The reported work seeks to analyze such alterations in an Irish context and measure the deductions of Internet alterations for the SME sector in Ireland. Specifically, the undertaking will analyze managerial attitudes and sentiments towards B2B commercialism and the challenges faced by such companies in the germinating Internet economic system. The undermentioned research inquiries are of significance to the survey: Is there an apprehension of e-commerce, the Internet and B2B amongst SME directors? Are they familiar with the ways of to the full using B2B? What are the chances for engagement in B2B? What are the benefits for engagement in B2B? Are at that place effects if non? What investings are necessary in preparation and development? What manner will it consequence bing concern relationships? Chapter 2 The Evolving E-commerce Economy 2.1 Introduction This thesis will analyze B2B minutess in an SME context and will seek to find the nature and extent of B2B among little concerns in the Southeast part. The alteration the Internet offers, is the improved efficiency in interchanging information. The dealing costs have declined and it is easier and cheaper for a company to interchange information with other companies. Enormous information engineering investings are no longer needed to interact with supply concatenation spouses electronically. The solutions should be within range for all companies independent of size. 2.2 Definitions of E-commerce ? E-commerce is the ability to execute minutess affecting the exchange or usage of goods or services between two or more parties utilizing electronic tools and techniques? . Treese and Stewart ( 1998 ) Some chief engineerings have made e-commerce feasible? World Wide Web, Electronic Data Interchange ( EDI ) , Electronic Fundss Transfer ( EFT ) and E-mail. ? EDI is the inter-organisational, computer-to-computer exchange of concern certification in a criterion, machine-processable format. EFT was designed to optimize electronic payments with electronically provided remittal information. ? Kalakota and Whinston ( 1997 ) E-commerce provides the capableness of purchasing and merchandising merchandises and information via telephone lines, computing machine webs, and other electronic agencies. The Internet, the largest web of computing machine webs, is the medium normally favoured for electronic commercialism because it allows an administration to cut service costs while increasing the velocity of service bringing. E-commerce is considered a primary agencies by which administrations may spread out quickly into the high growing emerging markets of the universe. This is possible because, foremost as multinational companies become skilled in their usage of the Internet, they will be able to prosecute planetary electronic commercialism more expeditiously, salvaging of import advertisement, communicating, and administrative costs. Second, the Internet can increase reactivity by advising single clients when new merchandises in their countries of involvement become available and by making customised merchandises and services. Third and eventually, multinational companies utilizing the Internet can increase their cognition about consumer wonts, be able to specify tendencies, and turn consumer statistics into long-run client relationships. Boudreau et Al ( 1998 ) 2.3 B2B E-commerce Forrester Research defines business-to-business e-commerce as? inter-company trade in which the concluding order is placed over the Internet? . The definition is constricted, since the order is merely one of the minutess needed between merchandising spouses. It is? Information and telecommunication enabled coaction across horizontal and perpendicular value ironss? . ( Eloranta 2000 ) E-business creates a platform for co-ordinating demand/supply ironss and wider concern webs. Another facet at micro degree is that e-business makes it possible to capture a huge figure of one-to-one relationships. E-business theoretical accounts are? all the concern theoretical accounts utilizing the Internet as a agency of information bringing? ( Huttunen 2000 ) . This definition is embracing, since it includes all sorts of relationships. B2B e-commerce was born out of an effort to work out an administrative job. It developed a new computing machine criterion to manage these demands, which became known as EDI, Electronic Data Interchange. Today its descendent, XML, a igniter, simpler informations interchange criterion is used by B2B sites. Simple e-commerce sites foremost appeared in 1992. The early e-commerce sites were practical catalogues, merely naming merchandises for sale. Ordering was off-line, through electronic mail, phone or facsimile. By 1996 the engineering had advanced greatly to bring forth practical shops with shopping carts, client histories and, with the development of protocols such as Secure Socket Layer, enabled clients to order and pay for their purchase on-line straight by recognition card. ( World Wide Web. Shelron.com? E-commerce: A Brief History? . 2000 ) B2B e-commerce rapidly became popular with consumers and providers. For clients, it was fast, easy and efficient, leting them to compare merchandises, monetary value and service before purchase. For providers, it allowed them to make an limitless international audience, 24 hours a twenty-four hours, 7 yearss a hebdomad at decreased costs. Today e-commerce is widely used and turning fast. B2B is the largest, fastest turning and most profitable market. Harmonizing to the Internet Development Company ( IDC ) , this twelvemonth, it is expected to account for two tierces of universe broad e-commerce. B2C is besides expected to turn, boosted by Broadband ( high-speed ) Internet entree to more online families. Future progresss include digital money and e-wallets, and # 8216 ; personal agents # 8217 ; that aid users find what they are looking for and of class WAP phones. Sites can work with fulfilment Centres supplying clients with first-class service and providers with information, and ca n back up the newest tendency for human interaction in e-commerce client service. 2.4 The Importance of the Internet in B2B trade In an AT Kearney Report ( AT Kearney, 1999 ) possible channel schemes that the Internet offers are outlined as follows: a ) Selling B ) Electronic selling, advertisement and publicity degree Celsius ) Digital distribution of goods and services vitamin D ) After-market merchandises and client support In the country of operations, the undermentioned utilizations of the Internet have been listed ( AT Kearney, 1999 ) : a ) Online publications and communications B ) Procurement and sourcing degree Celsius ) Digital co-operatives vitamin D ) Transportation system and logistics vitamin E ) Digital supply concatenation degree Fahrenheit ) Digital constellation g ) Global communicating and production H ) Integrated enterprise resource planning systems I ) Variable pricing 2.5 Some Impacts of the Internet on Business-to-Business ( B2B ) E-commerce It has already been suggested that the Internet will revolutionize the traditional ways of making concern ; and it will besides convey alterations for the B2B sector. These may be detailed as follows: a ) Entree to more spouses, clients or providers If within consumer concerns there exists an chance to make a broad group of consumers, in the B2B country at that place besides exists an chance to make more providers, even globally. It is non a job to portion gross revenues and stock list information with more providers with company benefits through lower buying monetary values. B ) Outsourcing and specialization Manufacturers and distributers are in a more hard state of affairs. While demands have grown, velocity, truth, service degree and customisation demands are high. While specialization is needed, outsourcing has become more attractive as it is more cost-efficient than earlier thanks to more efficient communicating. Henriott ( 1999 ) However, non all companies outsource their production. They fear losing control over rational belongings and quality or leaking inventions to rivals. They besides want to maintain in touch with clients and industry tendencies. Engardio ( 1998 ) degree Celsius ) The altering function of the client Relationships may alter in B2B e-commerce. Customer know-how is employed in many e-commerce instances, as the client has the installation to configure the merchandise required and in some instances the control of the supply concatenation is besides client controlled. The client is now more demanding and is pleased to acquire information about the bringing phases. A more active client now exists and performs tasks old carried out by the provider. The terminal consequence, a more satisfied client. Henriott ( 1999 ) , Slywotzky ( 2000 ) In incorporate supply chains the spouses become more loyal, the relationships deeper and the ties between the companies stronger. However, the Internet offers the client a manner to seek out lowest monetary values and forms a menace for strong trueness. Slywotzky ( 2000 ) Prahalad ( 2000 ) Customers are equipped with more information utilizing e-commerce. They become more demanding and this requires the supply concatenation to be flexible, speedy and accurate. As clients control the supply concatenation, the power displacements from providers to clients. vitamin D ) The altering constructions Lancioni et Al. ( 2000 ) in an article? The Role of the Internet in Supply Chain Management? Predict that supply ironss will shorten as a effect of B2B e-business. Companies may be in direct communicating with clients, industrial or consumers, when it is a inquiry of gross revenues or selling. But, because outsourcing additions, there will be instances where supply chains become longer and/or more complicated. vitamin E ) Better service degrees The article farther lineations that? quality degrees of the operations will increase in B2B e-commerce. Tradeoffs are no longer needed, ends refering service degrees and stock list degrees, for illustration, are no longer options. However, the demands and outlooks have grown excessively. What was antecedently regarded as an first-class service may now be taken as a given. degree Fahrenheit ) Collaboration ? In the country of supply concatenation direction, the usage of the Internet is on a rather low degree. A study of the function of the Internet in supply concatenation direction? ( Lancioni et al. 2000 ) indicated that the Internet seems to be used merely in individual minutess. The study did non concentrate on coaction or the alterations in the construction of a supply concatenation caused by the Internet. There appears to be huge possibilities that remain fresh. 2.6 The Impact of B2B E-commerce for Irish SME? s Jim Coffey, SoftCo CEO, addressed the Chartered Accountants in Business Conference of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland, 26 September 2000. He saying that? B2B ecommerce is all about set uping win-win trading relationships. Astute concerns view the Internet as a omnipresent web, enabling them to streamline their supply ironss, enter moneymaking new markets and trade electronically. The New Economy demands that administrations rethink their existing concern schemes, as those that do non take an aggressive attack and follow new and advanced concern theoretical accounts could happen themselves at a terrible competitory disadvantage? Further McGowan has suggested that? I see electronic commercialism is nil less than a revolution, which will alter the footing of making concern? McGowan ( 1999 ) Electronic Commerce represents as Kieran McGowan justly pointed out nil less than a revolution in the manner concern is carried out. As the reported work has indicated before, e-commerce basically changes the concern environment. It leads to different mediators, new merchandises, new markets and new concern consumer relationships every bit good as new channels for spreading cognition and for interaction in the workplace. The potency is immense as Irish B2B ecommerce minutess are predicted to turn from $ 500million in 1996 to $ 62 billion by the year-end 2000. McGuinness ( 1999 ) The SME sector is critical to the economic success of the Irish state, given the part of little concern to economic growing and occupation creative activity. Business with under 50 employees account for 98 % of the state # 8217 ; s concerns and more than 90 % of Irish concerns employ fewer than 10 people. Harmonizing to the National Competitiveness Council # 8217 ; s Annual Competitiveness Report 1998, SME # 8217 ; s are an indispensable component of national fight. A well-developed and vivacious SME sector will be an of import beginning of invention. Most new houses begin in the SME sector and they can besides be a genteelness land for new merchandises and services. 2.7 The Irish Situation Given the above statistics, it would be just to state that B2B e-commerce offers legion chances to concerns, but are Irish SME? s taking advantage of the chances afforded to them by e-commerce, specifically in the concern to concern context. The Annual Competitiveness Report 1998 points out that in general IT applications are used less by SME? s than by larger concerns. The chief grounds for this are the high costs associated with the applications, their hapless suitableness to the demands of the little concern and the SME? s ain deficiency of IT knowledge. The study besides points out that SME? s are besides at a disadvantage with respect to telecommunication costs. Unlike larger endeavors they are non they are non in a place to negociate bulk price reductions. Given these barriers it would look improbable that Irish SME? s are prehending the chances offered by ecommerce. A recent study by the Information Society Commission besides had some distressing statistics sing the usage of information engineering by SME? s. While 62 % of big companies in Ireland see new engineerings as indispensable, merely 22 % of little companies do. A distressing 25 % of SME? s feel that new engineerings will hold small or no impact on their fight. These are issues of importance. 2.8 the Southeast state of affairs Mary Harney T.D. , An T? naiste and Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment officially launched the Wales A ; Ireland e-commerce ( WIRECOM ) enterprise in Ireland. WIRECOM is an Interreg supported inaugural designed to assist SMEs in the South East of Ireland and West Wales place how e-Commerce can help in the development of their concern. It is envisaged that, with the aid of WIRECOM, Southeast SMEs will be better prepared and resourced to vie in the e-commerce universe of the hereafter. Talking at the launch the T? naiste said # 8220 ; The planetary nature of modern communicating engineerings will shrivel the planet and make off with the obstruction of distance. This presents many chances for little concern. Small concern has the quality of flexibleness, rapidly accommodating to a quickly altering environment and reacting to new market conditions and alterations originating from such things as economic restructuring, technological alteration and new production methods. Today # 8217 ; s launch of an advanced new e-Commerce enterprise, will ease advanced SMEs in successfully viing in the planetary marketplace. # 8221 ; Initial research by the WIRECOM undertaking squad has revealed that the acceptance of e-commerce by SMEs in the South East of Ireland is dawdling behind that of the National norm. # 8220 ; We have found that although there is strong general consciousness of e-Commerce amongst the concern community in the South East, there is still a reluctance or awkwardness to implement e-Commerce tools such as e-mail and online merchandising which is at discrepancy with National tendencies. # 8221 ; said Patrick Munden Project Manger WIRECOM. # 8220 ; Merely 35 % of fabrication companies in the South East usage electronic mail and an even lower figure ( 12 % ) have implemented web sites or electronic catalogues # 8221 ; , he continued. These statistics when viewed against the recent findings of the Information Society committee, which stated that the National norm for e-mail use is 80 % and Website execution at 55 % , indicate that concern in the Southeast is dawdling behind. The WIRECOM undertaking will turn to these issues and is offering free e-Commerce ratings to selected SMEs in the Southeast which will be undertaken by experient concern advisers from the South East Business Innovation Centre, in association with research helpers from the Waterford Institute of Technology. Advisers will see the SME, learn its procedures, discourse its concern issues and place how e-commerce can better concern efficiencies. Research will so set up how e-commerce is impacting on that SME? s peculiar Industry and place what providers, rivals and clients are making online. A study is so presented to the SME detailing the options available and urging possible schemes for the best manner frontward. If an SME has already implemented e-commerce tools, such as a Website, the undertaking advisers can give a non-biased position of its effectivity and will place selling techniques to increase the site? s productivity and the overall benefit of the site to the SME. The undertaking is unfastened to all little and average sized companies in fabrication or Internationally Traded Services in the Southeast part and is being operated in concurrence with several bureaus in West Wales where a similar programme for Welsh SMEs is presently in operation. The undertaking is funded by the EU Interreg II Programme and will be running until March 2001. Chapter 3 B2B: The Challenges and Potential Benefits for the SME Sector. 3.1 Introduction: B2B E-commerce Potential Benefits and Challenges A 3 Com proficient paper Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? States there is a broad scope of possible benefits actuating today? s SME? s to set about B2B e-commerce enterprises, including the followers: a ) Cost decrease via improved logistics and direction. The chances range from basic electronic information bringing to easing transactional exchanges of information. Such applications can make tighter links among concern spouses, bettering the efficiency of the assorted support maps involved in conveying merchandises to market. B ) Improved competitory position. Rapid growing, efficient decrease of merchandise time-to-market, and optimization of merchandise distribution channels contribute to a superior competitory place. degree Celsius ) Improved internal information entree. Quantitative and qualitative betterments to information entree for forces can give large final payments for the SME. Business countries such as the development of concern chances and concern scheme are peculiarly rich in this regard. In the emerging networked economic system, established companies are happening that they must follow B2B e-commerce in order to fend off competition. Newer, smaller, and/or other-market companies are come ining new markets as traditional barriers fall. Unless bing SME? s prepare to run into this competitory challenge, these new participants may be better positioned to heighten their supply ironss, acquire to market more rapidly, or purchase engineering to gain procedure efficiencies. 3.2 Challenges to Implement Operations Models Enabled by the Internet ? Gaining those immense possibilities the Internet offers is non an easy undertaking. Implementing a new operations theoretical account is hard. The companies must hold on rules, specifications, duties and cost sharing. This undertaking is expensive and time-consuming. ? Lee, Whang, ( 1999 ) Besides the whole industry may hold to be restructured. ? A Company must be able to transform itself to vie efficaciously in the new state of affairs. It is hard to alter established concern patterns. This state of affairs attracts new advanced companies, because they don? Ts have old constructions and methods? Prahalad, Ramasvamy ( 2000 ) . ? Material handling may go a hurdle for implementing a new concern theoretical account. Many authors propose, that outsourcing transit or repositing or constellation is a solution? Wilson ( 1999 ) Requirements are high for such jobbers. Implementing a cost-efficient bringing solution that is fast, accurate and flexible and is able to custom-make merchandises may be a hard equation to work out. 3 Com farther adds that? Businesss successful with B2B e-commerce are those that have learned to turn to several cardinal challenges? a ) Identify/measure quantifiable concern aims Businesses must accurately mensurate the impact an e-business enterprise has on a concern procedure in order to guarantee that enterprises are presenting on their promises. A common ground for non making this is a deficiency of apprehension of the relevant engineerings and their e-business deductions. B ) Define concern procedures. To back up measuring, concern procedures must be good defined. Companies should make theoretical accounts of bing procedures and interactions, finding the relevant events, clip frames, resources, and costs associated with the concern procedure. This theoretical account is so used to assist streamline and measure new electronic procedures, and serves as a benchmark for finding return on investing. degree Celsius ) Identify distinguishable value-propositions of equal value-chain entities. Each concern entity in the value concatenation must clearly understand the value propositions of each other entity. An e-commerce-enabled application may stand for value to one participant but have impersonal or even negative value to others. Enterprises with such instabilities can gnaw the concern confederation they were intended to back up. vitamin D ) Align concern administrations with IT architecture. The concern must be organised to let the demands of lines-of-business ( LOBs ) to be reconciled with the common architectural model developed by IT. IT may move as a accelerator within the endeavor to organize assorted LOB enterprises within the range of an e-business commission. A LOB may besides defend e-business enterprises, while the IT group maps as affair, guaranting architectural unity across the LOB enterprises. vitamin E ) Understand security issues. Even the most demanding security considerations can be addressed cost-effectively for the huge bulk of concerns. The nucleus security issue is unchanged. Security demands must be accurately identified and matched with appropriate mechanisms. degree Fahrenheit ) Ensure organisational/operational flexibleness. Business dealing growing, expanded markets, and increased information handiness can go resistless alteration agents. However good organised the concern was before deployment of e-business enterprises, the state of affairs will needfully alter as the consequence of the enterprises. Administrations must preposition themselves in their construction every bit good as in executing to boom in a significantly more dynamic environment. Businesss must put accomplishable ends and parametric quantities and run within them. ? Do non assure following twenty-four hours bringing if this is unattainable. ? SMEs have challenges similar to that of large concerns but they do non hold the benefits of economic sciences of graduated table, which make it riskier for SMEs to put in E-business engineering. The Challenges are frequently the same for SMEs whether they pattern conventional or practical concern. A major challenge for the SME is whether they have the fiscal resources to put in engineering and other related costs for developing an E-business, or including E-business as a scheme to their existing operations. Human resources need to be in topographic point to run into the demands, so holding staff to develop a new type of concern, holding the appropriate accomplishment base within the administration, pulling and retaining employees with applicable accomplishments are all critical for the SME. This may be really hard in today? s concern clime but it is indispensable to run E-business decently. Finding sufficient clip to put in the development and execution of an E-business bundle is besides a critical factor. Hazard taking can be dashing for an SME compared to larger administrations, peculiarly in ventures that are still comparatively new, unfamiliar and unsure. 3.3 B2B E-Commerce Quality Challenges Speer ( 2000 ) in an article: ? Requirements in E-Commerce Testing? provinces that? The importance of quality confidence and proving mechanisms is supported by the well-publicised clangs of outstanding e-commerce sites, and relentless concerns about bandwidth, security, and privateness. In an intensely competitory market place, rigorous quality criterions are associated with concerns that survive. With the competition merely a chink off, quality must be an active scheme alternatively of simply a motto. ? If, during peak purchasing seasons a ample fraction of effort ed Web purchases fail, or if users complain of dropped connexions, so the economic and public dealingss effects can be terrible. The same is besides true when inaccurate records are generated about minutess or clients can non find at the clip of telling if the coveted points are in stock or when bringing can be expected, or if the purchased goods neer arrive. Cardinal inquiries about whether it is safe to shop online and, if safe, so if truly cheaper, faster and more convenient than on Main Street, are asked and answered in each possible customer’s site trial experience. If the visitant experience is negative due to decelerate response times, straight-out clangs, or misdemeanors of privateness, consumer assurance can be undermined. Chapter 4 B2B Strategy and the Future 4.1 Syndication 4.1.1 Syndication an Introduction Werbach ( 1999 ) opens in an article from the Harvard Business Review entitled? Syndication: The Emerging Model for Business in the Internet Era? that? There? s no inquiry that the Internet is turn overing the old regulations about competition and scheme. But what are the new regulations? Many of them can be found in the construct of syndication, a manner of making concern that has its beginnings in the amusement universe but is now spread outing to specify the construction of e-business. As companies enter syndication webs, they will necessitate to rethink their merchandises, relationships, and even their nucleus capablenesss. ? The form of content and concern relationships on the Web is tied to an old construct, and that construct is syndication. Traditionally based on the closed universe of the media, it may be the theoretical account that allows the Web to stay unfastened as it grows. As with most new mediums, the Internet incorporates elements of media that existed in the yesteryear. Syndication trades are the lifeblood of today # 8217 ; s broadcast medium, overseas telegram and newspaper industries, an illustration of this is the sketch heroic poem? The Simpson? s? , which at any given clip on NTL? s web in operation in Ireland they may look on three different channels at the same time. In such agreements, entities that create content ( Gracie Films ) license it out to distributers ( NTL ) , who integrate it with their ain and other offerings ( Network 2, BBC 2 and Sky One ) . Several major Web-based companies adopted the syndication attack early on, though the market has remained reasonably limited. Werbach ( 1999 ) suggests. ? On-line syndication is now poised to detonate, but even as it changes the Internet, the Internet will alter syndication. On the Web, the construct applies to commerce every bit good as content, and shortly it will widen to dynamic applications. Syndication will germinate into the nucleus theoretical account for the Internet economic system, leting concerns and persons to retain control over their on-line character while basking the benefits of monolithic graduated table and range. The Internet is a communications medium, a platform for commercialism and a distributed computer science environment, all at one time. ? Syndication unambiguously cuts across the linguistic communication of content, commercialism and computer science. Though normally seen as an artifact of traditional inactive media, syndication tantrums absolutely with the Web # 8217 ; s fluidness and interactivity. The foundations for permeant Web-based syndication are now being laid, but everyone is still seeking to calculate out merely what the constructions on top will look like. Software sellers, service agency? s, content Godheads, synergistic bureaus and merchandisers are cheating to specify the theoretical accounts for syndication webs. Competitive conflicts are being fought in both criterions organic structures and distinct market places. Whether they realise it or non, all the participants are viing around a deep but under-appreciated Internet challenge: distributed information direction. 4.1.2 Why should Syndication Work? Werbach ( 1999 ) explains? Up to now Web syndication engineerings and patterns haven # 8217 ; t generated much attending outside narrow communities of involvement. But shortly, syndication will be perfectly cardinal to the development of most Net concerns. At the same clip, it # 8217 ; s the hereafter theoretical account for the 1000000s of independent and personal Web-sites that give the Internet its verve. The Internet is acquiring so large that no 1 can be everyplace. Syndication allows sites to widen their presence out to their clients, and gives those clients tools to aggregate the information and maps they wish to see. Syndication works so good on-line because everything takes the signifier of information. In the physical universe, syndication involves a batch of printing, collection and driving picture reels about. On the Web, as the transportation of content becomes simpler, the relationships can go more complex. Add to that the ability to assemble information dynamically or even to put to death applications with rights and privileges assigned among assorted parties, and things start to acquire interesting. Syndication has been traditionally rare in the concern environment for three grounds. First syndication works merely with information goods ; this is because information is non a consumable Merchandise, it remains available and infinite sum of people can utilize the same information. Second, syndication requires modularity. Syndicated goods are non normally merchandises in themselves, despite holding considerable value. Shane Ross? s concern subdivision in? The Sunday Independent? is really popular, nevertheless, would it be purchased as a individual entity? Finally, to guarantee the success of syndication many distributers are required. There would be small point of making many different combinations and constellations of content if there is merely one distributer or the content Godhead controls distribution. This would put a chokehold or monopolize the state of affairs, as was the instance in the early yearss of film in the US, with Warner Bros. declining to demo MGM movies in their theaters and visa versa. 4.1.3 The Three Syndication Roles Werbach ( 1999 ) high spots that within syndication webs concern can play one or more of three functions. a ) Originator Originators create as their name suggests original content. The Internet increases the range of conceivers in two ways. It expands the range of the original content and makes it easier for companies to circulate their content globally. It is possible to syndicate any merchandise, service or procedure once they can be as information. B ) Syndicator Syndicators bring together content from a figure of beginnings and so do it available through digital information. This relieves the distributer from holding to happen and negociate with huge Numberss of conceivers to garner the content they require. Syndicators are rare in the physical concern universe except in the amusement field, but it is going increasingely popular as concern theoretical account on the Internet. degree Celsiuss ) Distributor Distributors are the clients confronting facet of the concern. Distributors utilizing syndication to take down the cost for geting client content. This allows them to increase value to clients. Syndication allows conceivers to spread out their range and rush their time-to-market, both critical elements for success in a Web concern. It besides makes it possible for smaller, less commercially oriented sites to portion the benefits of the Internet economic system. 4.1.4 Syndication Summary As Werbach has discussed, ? The true trademark of the Internet is choice. ? With syndication, any information can be anyplace, because the nexus between creative activity and distribution is broken. There will be many possible waies between companies and their audiences. Many of these waies will be at the same time. The great chance for engineering and service suppliers lies in voyaging the tangle, taking advantage of the best distribution concatenation for a given client at a given minute. 4.2 E-Hubs: The New B2B Markets 4.2.1 Introduction ? As concern to concern commercialism displacements to the Internet, companies that have control over the online markets can exercise enormous influences on the manner participants carry out minutess, form relationships and gaining control profits. ? In an article? E-Hubs: The New B2B Marketplaces. ? Kaplan and Sawhney ( 2000 ) examine the subject of efficient and profitable customisation from a B2B lens by analyzing four types of E-Hubs in the B2B market place, these E-Hubs Lashkar-e-Taiba companies purchase precisely what they want and precisely how they want to purchase it. Kaplan and Sawhney place four types of E-Hubs: 1. MRO hubs 2. Output Directors 3. Exchanges 4. Catalog Hubs 4.2.2 MRO Hub MRO ( Maintenance, Repair, and Operating ) hubs are horizontal markets that enable a systematic sourcing of operating inputs. Systematic sourcing of inputs involves negotiated contracts with qualified providers, because the contacts tend to be long term, the purchasers and Sellerss build up a stopping point relationship. By and large used with low value goods with comparatively high dealing costs supplying mostly increasing efficiencies in the procurance procedure. 4.2.3 Output Manager Output directors are besides horizontal markets that enable topographic point sourcing of operating inputs. Topographic point sourcing is when the purchaser? s end is to carry through an immediate demand at the lowest possible cost. Commodities trading for oil or steel are a good illustration of topographic point sourcing. There is now relationship between purchaser and marketer in fact it is possible for the purchaser non to cognize whom they are covering with. Output directors create topographic point markets for common operating resources like advertisement or labor. This allows companies to spread out or contract their operations on short notice. This type of E-Hub adds the most value in state of affairss with a high grade of monetary value and demand volatility, such as electricity or with high fixed cost assets that can non be liquidated rapidly such as work force. 4.2.4 Exchanges Exchanges are perpendicular markets that enable topographic point sourcing of fabrication inputs. They enable procurement specializers to smooth out the extremums and the vales in demand and supply by quickly interchanging the trade goods or close trade goods required for production. The exchange hub maintains relationships with purchasers and Sellerss, this makes it easy for them to carry on concern without the holding to flesh out the castanetss of a relationship with all the connected paperwork. 4.2.5 Catalog Hubs Catalog hubs are perpendicular markets that enable systematic sourcing of fabrication inputs. They automate the sourcing of non-commodity fabrication inputs, making value by cut downing dealing costs. Catalog hubs conveying together many providers to the easy to utilize Web site. They are industry specific and can be purchaser or marketer focused. The B2B Matrix What Businesses Buy? How Businesses Buy? Systematic Sourcing Spot Sourcing Operating Inputs Manufacturing Inputs MRO Hubs MRO.com BizBuyer.com Catalog Hubs Chemdex PlasticsNet.com Output Directors Steptstone.com AdAuction.com Exchange Hubs e-Steel PapersExchange.com Fig. 1.The B2B Matrix 4.2.6 Aggregation and Matching There are obvious differences between systematic and topographic point sourcing this in bend makes the market mechanisms for MRO and Catalog hubs rather distinguishable from that of Yield troughs and Exchange Hubs. E-Hubs creates value by two basically different mechanisms, collection and matching. E-Hubs under collection brings together a big figure of purchasers and Sellerss under one practical roof. They can cut down dealing cost by supplying one halt store. The collection mechanism is inactive in nature, as monetary values are pre negotiated. An of import facet of collection is that the add-on of another purchaser benefits merely the marketer and the add-on of another marketer benefits merely the purchaser. The ground behind this is that in collection both the purchasers and Sellerss places are fixed. Unlike in the collection mechanism the matching mechanism is non-static and brings purchaser and Sellerss together in a dynamic existent clip environment. Matching used topographic point sourcing where monetary values are determined at the minute of purchase ; it is possible for the purchase to take topographic point in the signifier of an auction. The functions of the participants in matching is unstable, purchasers can be Sellerss and frailty versa. Therefore the debut of any new traders in to the mechanism can be good to both parties. 4.3 Choiceboards: The age of the Choiceboard Slywotzky ( 2000 ) suggests that, ? Thankss to the Internet an option to the unhappy theoretical account of supplier-customer interaction is eventually going possible. In most markets clients will be able to plan or depict the exact merchandise or service that they want and supplier will be able to present it with out via media or hold, this is made possible through Choiceboards. Choiceboards are synergistic on line systems the allow persons to plan their ain merchandises by taking from a bill of fare of properties, constituents and monetary values. The client can now travel from being the merchandise taker to merchandise shaper. ? In? The age of the Choiceboard? , Slywotzky ( 2000 ) , a direction adviser, looks at this synergistic on-line system that allows consumers to custom-make the merchandises or services they order. He anticipates that Choiceboards will rule commercial activity this decennary, as the U.S. economic system displacements from a supply-driven to a demand-driven system. Slywotzky theorises that? because the companies that control Choiceboards will besides command client relationships, ? these companies will be the industry powerhouses that? harvest the king of beasts # 8217 ; s portion of the net incomes? . The same chances exist for SME? s in the B2B sector. Dell are already runing a successful on line constellation where clients are planing their ain forces computing machines. 4.4 Hypermediation: Commerce as Clickstream Carr, a senior editor at Harvard Business Review, argues in an article entitled? Hypermediation: Commerce as clickstream? 2000, that electronic commercialism has greatly enlarged, non eliminated the jobber # 8217 ; s function in online concern a phenomenon he calls? Hypermediation. ? Those who stand to profit most from electronic commercialism, he says, will be the overplus of Internet mediators such as jobbers and retail merchants ; content suppliers ; developers of affiliate sites, hunt engines, and portals ; Internet service suppliers ; and package shapers. The emerging economic construction of e-commerce, he says, indicates that? net incomes lie in intermediate minutess, non in the concluding sale of a good. ? Carr refers to this as? net income for chinks? . Furthermore, he foresees the most net income fluxing to the proprietors of specialized content sites and the applied scientists who are progressing e-commerce engineerings. Chapter 5 Primary Research Objectives and Methodology 5.1 Introduction This chapter shall depict the intents of the research that was undertaken and detail the methods that were employed in the pursuit of these aims. The literature reappraisal has highlighted the impacts that B2B ecommerce is holding on the Irish SME and the manner they in which they conduct concern. The hereafter challenges and alterations for the SME have besides been reviewed. The reported work? B2B in SME? s: Positions and Future Challenges? seeks to analyze such alterations in an Irish context and measure the deductions of the Internet and related engineerings on the SME sector in Ireland. Specifically, the reported work will analyze managerial attitudes and sentiments towards B2B ecommerce and the challenges faced by such companies in the germinating Internet economic system. In order to finish such an scrutiny primary research will be conducted, analysed, reviewed and presented to exemplify the ways in which SME? s directors view B2B ecommerce. 5.2 Aims of Primary Research The aims of the research may be outlined as follows: 1. To look into the degrees of apprehension of B2B ecommerce issues in Irish SME? s 2. To detail the extent to which directors are familiar with the chances for take parting in B2B ecommerce 3. To analyze the cost of engagement for SME? s in B2B ecommerce 4. To look into the challenges for troughs of SME? s in take parting in farther ecommerce enterprises 5.3 Secondary and Primary Research The secondary research that was examined in the literature reappraisal was undertaken utilizing concern diaries, books, newspaper articles, the Internet, desk research and libraries. Ecommerce was introduced with a simple history and background. Followed by the chances and challenges faced by the SME director in the B2B ecommerce environment. Disruptive engineerings and reiterating forms in retailing, the challenges, hurdlings and benefits of e-commerce from the SME? s directors point of view were reviewed. Finally the new developing schemes and concern theoretical accounts available utilizing the Internet were discussed and the benefits they bring the B2B ecommerce environment. The primary research is to be conducted across a random choice of SME? s in the south E of Ireland. These SME? s were selected across a wide spectrum of industries and service suppliers runing from fabricating companies to linemans, from transport/logistic companies to retail stores. The list was derived partly from the Industrial Development Authority ( IDA ) and partly from the? Business and Shopping Guide? . This was done in order to acquire a wide cross subdivision of SME? s. 5.4 Methodology The information to be collected is quantitative, based on a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 28 inquiries, which will be forwarded to 100 SME? s via electronic mail, station and from concern relationships. Upon reception of the questionnaire the receiver will be asked to return their completed questionnaire to the writer within a period of two hebdomads. Once the completed questionnaires have been completed, analysis of the information will take topographic point and the consequences will be presented, analysed and discussed. Due to rush of response electronic mail will be utilised to send on and return the questionnaire. However the writer appreciates that this may bias the findings of the research, so a lower limit of 25 per centum of questionnaires will non be sent via electronic mail or any other electronic medium. 5.4.1 Quantitative versus Qualitative Research Quantitative research designs strive to place and insulate specific variables within the context of the survey. It is a difficult scientific discipline with a narrow focal point and is concise, it? s logical thinking is deductive and logistic. Quantitative research involves nonsubjective measurings where the decrease to Numberss allows for the testing of the hypothesis and the derivation of statistical informations. In quantitative research there is cogency because of the chance to generalize. Quantitative information is collected under controlled conditions in order to govern out the possibility that variables other than the one under survey can account for the relationships identified Qualitative design focuses on a holistic position of what is being studied via paperss, instance histories, observations and interviews. Qualitative informations are collected within the context of their natural happening. Qualitative research involves the aggregation, analysis and reading of informations that are non easy reduced to Numberss. Quantitative research has been selected as the methodological analysis for primary research in the reported work because it should give a wide overview of the attitudes and sentiments of SME director? s and B2B ecommerce. Quantitative research is undertaken cognizing that it does hold disadvantages, such as, low response rates, response times, and possible misinformation due to miss of apprehension of the inquiries posed. 5.4.2 Questionnaire 1. How many Employees are at that place in the Company? 2. What is the specific industry/service supplier sector that your concern is involved in? E.g. Electronicss, contract cleansing, retail mercantile establishment. 3. Is there an Information Technology ( IT ) section within the Company? 4. How many Personal Computers ( Personal computer? s ) are at that place in the Company? 5. Make your company have entree to the Internet? 6. Make your company have entree to e-mailing installations? 7. Department of energies you company hold it? s ain Web site? 8. Is there an apprehension of Business to Business ( B2B ) ecommerce within the company? If so give a brief account of what you understand this to be. 9. Make your company use the Internet to do purchases? 10. Make your company use the Internet to do gross revenues? 11. Is your company committed to B2B ecommerce? 12. Make your company believe that B2B ecommerce it is merely another passing craze? Please rate your reply, strongly hold, unsure or strongly differ 13. If the company is already involved in B2B ecommerce is this portion of the company? s strategic program? 14. If so are at that place specific marks for the B2B ecommerce set? 15. If so are these marks monitored? 16. Is your company aware of the deductions of non being involved in B2B ecommerce? 17. What costs did your company experience in going involved in B2B ecommerce? 18. Make your company have to utilize external advisers when puting up your B2B ecommerce? 19. If yes, are these advisers still necessary for the right care of your IT and B2B ecommerce related systems? 20. Was developing and development necessary among your bing staff to derive entry into B2B ecommerce? 21. Has any extra preparation / retraining taken topographic point since get downing in B2B ecommerce? 22. Make your company hire forces specific to the B2B ecommerce map? 23. Make your company experience barriers in deriving entry to B2B ecommerce? Please item e.g. Security issues, velocity of response, bringing clip, methods of payment. 24. Make your company experience any troubles with bing concern relationships whilst following B2B ecommerce? 25. Have your company experienced any troubles since get downing B2B ecommerce? 26. Make your company utilize its engagement in ecommerce as a selling tool? 27. If yes how would you rate the following statement? The usage of B2B ecommerce promotes the company as a progressive forward believing concern? Please rate your reply, strongly hold, unsure or strongly differ 28. Make your company believe that there is no hereafter for companies who are non involved in B2B ecommerce? Please rate your reply, strongly hold, unsure or strongly disagree. Mentions Kafta S J. 2000: ? eMarketplaces Boost B2B Trade? The Forrester Report February 2000 Christensen CM. and Bower JL. 1995: ? Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave? Harvard Business Review January? February 1995 Evans P. and Wurster TS. 2000: ? Geting Real About Virtual Commerce? Harvard Business Review November? December 1999 Product No.4525 Christensen CM. and Tedlow RS. 2000: ? Forms of Disruption in Retailing? Harvard Business Review January? February 2000. Product No. 4681 Treese GW and Stewart LC 1998: ? Planing Systems for Internet Commerce? Addison Wesley Longman Inc. 1998. Kalakota R and AB. Whinston 1997: ? Electronic Commerce-A Manager # 8217 ; s Guide. ? Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1997. Boudreau MC and Loch KD, Robey D et al.1998: ? Traveling planetary: Using information engineering to progress the fight of the practical multinational administration? . Associated Press, 1998 Eloranta E. 1999: ? A Literature Survey About Current Issues in B2B E-commerce? Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Helsinki University of Technology 1999. Huttunen M. 2000: ? The Role of Business-to-Business e-Business in Demand-Supply Chain Management. ? A Seminar Work, March 6, 2000, Helsinki University of Technology. World Wide Web. Shelron.com? E-commerce: A Brief History? . 2000 Kearney AT 1999: Digital Pioneers # 8211 ; A White Paper on the Practical Applications of Electronic Commerce: ? Separating Ballyhoo from Reality. ? Henriott LL 1999: ? Transforming Supply Chains into eChains? , Supply Chain Management Review Global Supplement, Spring 1999. Engardio P 1998: ? Souping up the Supply Chain: Today # 8217 ; s supercontractors are turning makers into theoretical accounts of efficiency? . Business Week, New York, Aug 31 Slywotzky AJ 2000: ? The Age of the Choiceboard, ? Harvard Business Review January # 8211 ; February 2000 Prahalad R 2000: ? Co-opting client competence? . Harvard Business Review January? February 2000 Lancioni RA, Smith MF and Oliva TA 2000: ? The Role of the Internet in Supply Chain Management? . Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 29, Jan 2000, New York, January 2000 McGuinness J 1999: ? The Impact of Ecommerce on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises? Report prepared by Deputy John McGuinness on behalf of the Joint Committee on Enterprise and Small Business May 1999 Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? 3 Com Technical paper 2000 Lee HL and Whang S 1999: ? Sharing Information to Hike the Bottom Line. ? www-gsb.stanford.edu/research/reports/1999/whang_lee.html Prahalad R and Ramasvamy N 2000: ? Co-opting client competency. ? Harvard Business Review January # 8211 ; February 2000 Wilson T 1999: ? Transportation/Logistics: Shippers Deliver the Logistics Goods # 8211 ; transit service suppliers revamp traditional concern theoretical accounts to streamline client? s supply chain. ? Internetweek, Manhasset, October 1999 Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? 3 Com Technical paper 2000 JB Speer Jr.2000: ? Requirements in E-Commerce Testing? Microsoft Enterprise Services White Paper E-Commerce Technical Readiness 2000 Werbach K. ? Syndication: The Emerging Model for Business in the Internet Era. ? Harvard Business Review May? June 2000. Product No. 4703 Kaplan S and Sawhney M. ? E-Hubs: The New B2B Marketplaces? Harvard Business Review May? June 2000. Product No. 469X Carr N.G. ? Hypermediation: Commerce as Clickstream? Harvard Business Review January? February 2000. Product No. 4681 Bibliography Mentions Kafta S J. 2000: ? eMarketplaces Boost B2B Trade? The Forrester Report February 2000 Christensen CM. and Bower JL. 1995: ? Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave? Harvard Business Review January? February 1995 Evans P. and Wurster TS. 2000: ? Geting Real About Virtual Commerce? Harvard Business Review November? December 1999 Product No.4525 Christensen CM. and Tedlow RS. 2000: ? Forms of Disruption in Retailing? Harvard Business Review January? February 2000. Product No. 4681 Treese GW and Stewart LC 1998: ? Planing Systems for Internet Commerce? Addison Wesley Longman Inc. 1998. Kalakota R and AB. Whinston 1997: ? Electronic Commerce-A Manager # 8217 ; s Guide. ? Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1997. Boudreau MC and Loch KD, Robey D et al.1998: ? Traveling planetary: Using information engineering to progress the fight of the practical multinational administration? . Associated Press, 1998 Eloranta E. 1999: ? A Literature Survey About Current Issues in B2B E-commerce? Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Helsinki University of Technology 1999. Huttunen M. 2000: ? The Role of Business-to-Business e-Business in Demand-Supply Chain Management. ? A Seminar Work, March 6, 2000, Helsinki University of Technology. World Wide Web. Shelron.com? E-commerce: A Brief History? . 2000 Kearney AT 1999: Digital Pioneers # 8211 ; A White Paper on the Practical Applications of Electronic Commerce: ? Separating Ballyhoo from Reality. ? Henriott LL 1999: ? Transforming Supply Chains into eChains? , Supply Chain Management Review Global Supplement, Spring 1999. Engardio P 1998: ? Souping up the Supply Chain: Today # 8217 ; s supercontractors are turning makers into theoretical accounts of efficiency? . Business Week, New York, Aug 31 Slywotzky AJ 2000: ? The Age of the Choiceboard, ? Harvard Business Review January # 8211 ; February 2000 Prahalad R 2000: ? Co-opting client competence? . Harvard Business Review January? February 2000 Lancioni RA, Smith MF and Oliva TA 2000: ? The Role of the Internet in Supply Chain Management? . Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 29, Jan 2000, New York, January 2000 McGuinness J 1999: ? The Impact of Ecommerce on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises? Report prepared by Deputy John McGuinness on behalf of the Joint Committee on Enterprise and Small Business May 1999 Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? 3 Com Technical paper 2000 Lee HL and Whang S 1999: ? Sharing Information to Hike the Bottom Line. ? www-gsb.stanford.edu/research/reports/1999/whang_lee.html Prahalad R and Ramasvamy N 2000: ? Co-opting client competency. ? Harvard Business Review January # 8211 ; February 2000 Wilson T 1999: ? Transportation/Logistics: Shippers Deliver the Logistics Goods # 8211 ; transit service suppliers revamp traditional concern theoretical accounts to streamline client? s supply chain. ? Internetweek, Manhasset, October 1999 Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? 3 Com Technical paper 2000 JB Speer Jr.2000: ? Requirements in E-Commerce Testing? Microsoft Enterprise Services White Paper E-Commerce Technical Readiness 2000 Werbach K. ? Syndication: The Emerging Model for Business in the Internet Era. ? Harvard Business Review May? June 2000. Product No. 4703 Kaplan S and Sawhney M. ? E-Hubs: The New B2B Marketplaces? Harvard Business Review May? June 2000. Product No. 469X Carr N.G. ? Hypermediation: Commerce as Clickstream? Harvard Business Review January? February 2000. Product No. 4681

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Childrens Influence on the Tourism Industry

Introduction Families form a significant component of the global tourism industry. Schanzel and Yeoman (2012) assert that families have a significant influence on tourism demand. Nickerson and Jurowski (2000) define family tourism as a form of tourism, which involves the family unit.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Children’s Influence on the Tourism Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to a study conducted by Nickerson and Jurowski (2000), families accounted for 65% of the total domestic trips in the United States. Moreover, family expenditures averaged $1,087 in 1999, which represents a 58% growth compared to the previous year. The study also showed that 31% of the families considered in the study indicated their intention to increase their spending on family vacations in the future. Schanzel and Yeoman (2012, p.2) opine that the ‘growing significance of this market should not be und erestimated, despite the prevailing economic climate’. Furthermore, recent research shows that most families are unwilling to forgo consumption of tourism products (Kang, Hsu Wolfe 2009). Subsequently, firms in the tourism industry must recognise the significance of families and their changing makeup in their pursuit for sustainable growth. Most studies on consumer behaviour have identified children as consumers (Berry 2000). Furthermore, an extensive body of knowledge on the decision-making process within the family have been undertaken. However, researchers in the tourism industry have mainly concentrated on the role of husband and wife in the process of making decisions on holidays. Subsequently, there is a gap with regard to the role of children in the decision making process. This paper offers a literature review on the family market and the power of children in the tourism industry. Furthermore, the paper evaluates the challenges faced by marketers in their quest to ma ximise their firms’ profitability.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature review Consumer decision making Consumers engage in a comprehensive decision-making process in their purchasing process. Wang, Hsieh, Yeh, and Tsai (2004) assert that the decision making process is influenced by different factors. One of these factors includes social influence by family, friends, and reference groups. Previous researches have identified family as a critical component of the consumers’ decision-making process. However, most researches have concentrated on the role of husband and wife in purchase decision making. Moreover, findings of most researchers show that husbands and wives make decisions jointly (Wang et al. 2004). Children as influencers Blichfeldt and Pedersen (2010) contend that children constitute a significant proportion of consumers, which marketers shoul d target. This market segment is created as soon as children begin to make requests for products and services. Studies show that the likelihood of children influencing purchase decisions on products that directly affect them is high. Moreover, studies have shown that children are less likely to influence purchase decisions related to products involving high costs and which the entire family consumes. Therefore, parents take the responsibility of making decisions involving high-risk products. Thomson, Liang, and McKee (2007) assert that children have largely been ignored as influencers in the consumption decision-making process. However, this trend has changed lately. Various children TV shows and magazines have reported an increase in the rate at which children are being integrated into the consumption decision-making process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Children’s Influence on the Tourism Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/ page Learn More For example, a study conducted by JD Power Associates reveals that 69%of parents involve their children in making decisions on the type of vehicle to purchase (Blichfeldt Pedersen 2010). Role of children in vacation marketing According to Nickerson and Jurowski (2000), family tourism is experiencing significant growth due to diverse work related issues. For example, parents are spending much of their time working in an effort to support their families financially. This aspect has led to significant increment in their disposable income. However, this move has led to a significant reduction in the time spent with their children. Previously, children were not considered in making decisions on vacation. Nickerson and Jurowski (2000) argue that their lack of inclusion is largely because most tourist firms did not consider children as a viable target audience. Subsequently, firms in the tourism industry believed that children submit to their parents’ decisions. Currently, most families are considering family trips as a perfect way to reconnect with their children. Additionally, parents are increasingly providing children with the responsibility of making decisions on holiday destinations. Subsequently, they are increasingly being considered as a critical component of the decision-making unit. One of the critical steps in the consumer decision-making process entails information search. Boonlertvanich (2009) asserts that consumers search for information from diverse sources such as family, friends, reference groups, and the media.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Information search is motivated by the need to develop sufficient knowledge on the product. Liang (2013) argues that consumers undertake comprehensive pre-purchase information seeking in order to enhance their decision-making capability. Information search increases the likelihood of attaining a high level of post-purchase satisfaction. Liang (2013) further asserts that children influence the decision-making process by acting as a significant source of information. According to Meyers (2008), children are increasingly becoming knowledgeable on different holiday destinations. The growth in the level of knowledge arises from the high rate at which marketers are targeting children in their marketing process. The emergence of diverse web-based marketing communication tools such as social media has provided marketers with an opportunity to interact with children. Subsequently, children have become a critical source of marketer-dominated information. Previous studies further show that 75% of parents involve children in making decisions on holiday destinations by showing them different advertising mediums such as magazines and websites on holiday destinations (Meyers 2008). Consequently, one can assert that children are proactively involved in making decisions on family trips by offering their suggestions and ideas about their preferred holiday destination. However, Meyers (2008) asserts that the degree of involvement in the holiday decision-making process depends on the children’s age. Challenges facing marketers today The above analysis shows that there is a high probability for family tourism market experiencing significant growth in the future. However, the extent to which firms in the tourism industry exploit the market opportunities will depend on the effectiveness with which they understand prevailing market challenges. A study conducted by International Building Machine (IBM) involving 500 marketing managers from 15 different industries showed that mar keters face a major challenge in their effort to create and sustain a high rate of organisational growth (Whitler 2013). Forty two percent (42%) of the respondents interviewed argued that increasing the customer base is a major challenge while 36% of the respondents cited nurturing a high level of customer loyalty as a major challenge (Whitler 2013). Changing market trends Firms in different sectors are facing a challenge emanating from the prevailing market trends. For example, organisations are increasingly investing in research and development in an effort to develop products that satisfy the consumers’ needs and wants. This aspect has improved the effectiveness with which organisations undertake continuous product improvement, hence their degree of competitiveness. The family tourism market is characterised by the emergence of new products. This aspect presents a major challenge in organisations’ efforts to keep up with the prevailing market trends. Furthermore, th e family tourism market is not shielded from challenges emanating from the external business environment. One of these challenges relates to an increase in complexity of the family unit. Schanzel and Yeoman (2012) cite the emergence of alternative families, increase in the consumers’ disposable income, the emergence of social media, and increase in the size of the aging population as some of the challenges facing firms in the family tourism industry. These changes have complicated the consumers’ needs for tourism products. Despite this aspect, firms in the hospitality industry have an obligation to ensure that customers are satisfied in order to achieve their profit maximisation objective. One of the ways through which firms in the hospitality industry can enhance their profitability is by developing multi-generational products, which accommodate diverse family needs (Schanzel Yeoman 2012). Targeting Marketers have an obligation to ensure that their organisations atta in the profit maximisation objective. Consequently, marketers should adopt effective market targeting strategies. Laroche, Bergeron, and Barbaro-Forleo (2001) define marketing targeting as the process of identifying the specific market segment that an organisation intends to market its products. Marketers can adopt different targeting approaches, which include the differentiated, undifferentiated, and the concentrated approach. The undifferentiated approach entails developing a product that appeals the entire market while the differentiated approach entails identifying specific groups of customers, which are likely to become loyal to the firm’s product. On the other hand, the concentrated approach entails selecting one specific customer group, which is likely to increase the likelihood of a firm attaining its profit maximisation objective. Attaining effective marketing targeting is a major challenge to most organisations due to the complexity with regard to the consumers†™ needs. The situation is further complicated by change in consumer behaviour. Laroche, Bergeron, and Barbaro-Forleo (2001, p.503) argue that an ‘important challenge facing marketers is to identify which consumers are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products’. This assertion underscores the importance of marketers developing sufficient understanding of the consumers’ needs. Schanzel and Yeoman (2012) assert that understanding the target market’s specific needs enables organisational managers to formulate optimal product differentiation strategy. Subsequently, targeting can enhance the likelihood of an organisation achieving long-term success. Furthermore, effective targeting enhances the effectiveness with which firms in the tourism industry achieve their consumer centric objective. Budget constraints Middleton and Clarke (2012) assert that firms are experiencing a significant increment in marketing cost while the costs of general manage ment and manufacturing have been declining. The increase in marketing cost has emanated from the need to create sufficient awareness by investing in diverse marketing communication mediums. Despite this aspect, corporate managers have an obligation to maximise their shareholders’ wealth. Subsequently, managers are faced with the challenge of ensuring that their organisations attain operational efficiency under starved resources. Weber (2002, p.705) points out that marketing ‘managers are being asked to provide a more convincing evidence that planned marketing strategies will indeed yield more value for the company and its shareholders’. Moreover, marketing managers are required to justify why the marketing budget should be increased. Budget constraint is further complicated by economic changes such as the recent global economic crisis. The crisis has motivated organisations to cut the cost of their operation by adopting diverse cost management strategies such as downsizing. Conclusion The family tourism market has undergone significant growth over the past few decades. The growth has emanated from changes emanating from the external business environment. For example, parents are increasingly considering family trips as an avenue to compensate for the time lost. Subsequently, family vacations are being considered as a strategy to connect with children. This paper has further identified consumer decision-making process as one of aspects that marketers should take into account in their marketing process. Understanding the different actors in the consumer decision-making process increases the effectiveness with which marketers influence their purchase decision. Despite the significance of children in the consumption process, most parents do not consider them in their decision-making process. However, this paper has identified children as critical influencers in the decision making process. According to this paper, children are an important sour ce of information on the various holiday destinations that a family should consider. The study asserts that children are increasingly becoming knowledgeable on holiday destinations due to the high rate at which destination marketers are considering them as the target audience. In a bid to improve their competitive advantage with regard to marketing, it is imperative for marketers to understand the prevailing market challenges. Some of the major challenges that firms in the family tourism market face include changing market trends, targeting difficulties, and budget constraints. Taking into account these aspects will improve the effectiveness with which firms in the tourism market segment influence the family market segment. Reference List Berry, T 2000, Hurdle, the book on business planning; how to develop and implement successful business plan, Palo Alto Software Inc, Eugene. Blichfeldt, B Pedersen, B 2010, ‘Tween tourists; children and decision making’, Journal of To urism Consumption and Practice, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 1-24. Boonlertvanich, K 2009, ‘Consumer buying and decision making behaviour of a digital camera in Thailand’, RU International Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 57-65. Kang, S, Hsu, C Wolfe, K 2009, ‘ Family traveller segmentation by vacation decision making patterns’, Journal of Hospitality Tourism Research, vol. 3 no.1, pp. 1-23. Laroche, M, Bergeron, J Barbaro-Forleo, G 2001, ‘ Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 18 no. 6, pp. 503-520. Liang, Y 2013, ‘Children’s influence on purchasing tourism products via the internet; parental power versus children’s power, the social power perspective’, Journal of Travel Tourism Marketing, vol. 30 no. 3, pp. 639-662. Meyers, Y 2008, ‘Target marketing and the product; categorisation products to understand the resulting marketing communicat ion outcome measures’, Journal of Management and Marketing Research, vol. 2 no.1, pp. 10475-10483. Middleton, V Clarke, J 2012, Marketing in travel and tourism, Routledge, New York. Nickerson, N Jurowski, C 2000, ‘The influence of children on vacation travel patterns’, Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol. 7 no. 1, pp. 19-30. Schanzel, H Yeoman, I 2012, Family tourism, Channel View Publication, London. Thomson, E, Liang, A McKee, L 2007, ‘Family purchase decision making; exploring child influence behaviour’, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 6 no.1, pp. 182-202. Wang, K, Hsieh, A, Yeh, Y Tsai, C 2004, ‘Who is the decision maker; the parent or the children in group package tours’, Tourism Management, vol. 25 no.4, pp. 183-194. Weber, J 2002, ‘Managing the marketing budget in cost constrained environment’, Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 31 no. 8, pp.705-717. Whitler, K 2013, What are the biggest challenges facing m arketers according to new IBM study. Web. This essay on Children’s Influence on the Tourism Industry was written and submitted by user Joslyn Carver to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Desire †The Wife of Bath

Desire – The Wife of Bath Free Online Research Papers What do you desire? Is it love or family? The Wife of Bath was a woman, who desired only a few simple things in life. She made mirror images of herself, through her stories, which in some ways reflected the person she really was. In our world, however, people desire so many more things. My desires are truly what I want to live by. The Wife of Bath wished for the obvious wants of woman, but what she most desired above all, was being more powerful than her man, her spouse, her lover. In a relationship, she wished to be the dominant of the two. The Wife of Bath wanted to be the one who had the last say, the one who was in control and decided all of the matters in the relationship. This was shown in her tale when the knight fulfilled his task to her. â€Å"a woman wants the self-same sovereignty over her husband and her lover. And master him: he must not be above her. This is your greatest wish In the court not one that shook her head or contradicted what the knight had said† (lines 164-170) The knight had spoken and fulfilled his quest; he found what women wanted the most. No women in the assembly disagreed with the knights reply and certainly not the old hag. According to this scene, true power was what women wanted the most. There was another example of the desire that deals with power, beauty, and happiness for a woman in a relationship. The old hag, after marrying the knight, gives him a choice. She can either stay ugly and be faithful, or become beautiful and wonder. â€Å"My lady, my love, my dearest wife, I leave the matter to your wise decision. You make the choice yourself, for the provision. I dont care which; whatever pleases you suffices me.† â€Å"Have I won the mastery?† she said. â€Å"Since I am to choose and rule as I think fit?† â€Å"Certainly, wife, thats it.† (lines 310-318) Consequently, the hag became beautiful, yet still was faithful. This example shows how happy the woman became when she was given the power and beauty. She was so happy that she rewarded her husband by becoming beautiful. â€Å"And may Christ Jesus send us husbands that are meek and young and fresh in bed. And grace to overbid them when we wed and Jesus hear my prayer! cut short the l ives of those who wont be governed by their wives.† (lines 338-343) This desire also led to envy of the characters in the wife’s story. By comparing the Wife of Baths prologue to her tale it becomes very visible that she is jealous of the old hag in her story. The hag was given the power and dominance over her husband. In the wifes true life it was not like that. Since the Wife of Bath loved Johnny, her fifth husband, so much she gave him all of her possessions, in turn giving him the power. â€Å"I gave my whole heart up for him to holdI handed him all the money, (she had never done this before) lands, and all that ever had been given me before; this I repented more and more. None of my pleasures would he let me seekhe smote me once upon the cheek† Through this statement made by the wife it shows that her fifth husband had the upper hand. This is not what she desired. The Wife of Bath became jealous of her own character, the old lady hag, because she had what the wife wanted. The hag had power, beauty, and happiness. She was given the choice, while the wife had the choice taken from her. This was also where c haracterization came in. The way The Wife of Baths Tale is written showed a similarity between the wifes prologue and her story. The major characteristic shown was the appearance of the two ladies. Both the wife and the hag were not very attractive and were old. The wife was described in lines 395-398. â€Å"I was forty then, to tell the truth. But still I always had a coltish tooth. Yes Im gap tooth, it suits me well† The hag, when describing herself, says she was old and ugly. Not to mention she was called a hag. I think the hag was The Wife of Bath in her story. The wife wrote the story to show what she desires and what she was like in real life. She also wrote the story to show what she wanted to be transformed into. I believe that woman today also have desires. Some do desire for power, others for love, a family, success, money, and so on. There are two things that I wanted most in my life. They were: to develop a loving and supportive family and my walk with Jesus Christ. At the age of five, my parents divorced. It did not seem to affect me much since I was so young. However, in 4th grade it seemed I became so angry. I was slamming books and doors. There was one teacher I would always talk back to and get in trouble with. (I can still remember that class and arguing with her to this day). I began to see a counselor and to take anti-depressants. This helped and I seemed to calm down. Since then, I have been on and off of medicine for anger, anxiety, and depression. I think the divorce of my parents had a lot to do with this. I am not ashamed of this, but wish I didn’t have to deal with it. I think that my parents have helped me to deal with the idea that life is not perfect. I think a divorce is a hard thing for both parents and children. Yet, through this strife I had strong parents who were willing to love and support me in every way possible. They wanted the best for me so they did all they could to do that and fulfilled my desire. I can barely remember sitting in Sunday school each week, learning about Jesus. My parents always brought me to church and encouraged that as part of my life. I was never baptized as a child though. They both never really had a religious background growing up, so I guess they never thought about it. As I grew older, I became more involved with the church. At the age of 12, I went through confirmation and was finally baptized. I had accepted Christ into my heart. A few years after that, I began to distance myself from the church community. I began drinking in 8th grade! I would always go back and forth going to church a few weeks, then not for another few weeks. I would decide to be â€Å"good† and then would not follow what I had planned. As I entered high school, I began to attend Young Life. It was youth group type of thing. We sang, ate, and had a devotional. I made several friends and it was a great new start. I started to attend church, but never every Sunday. I stopped drinking throughout 10th grade, but began again in 11th. I struggled with this all four years of high school and still do today. My walk with Christ is not an easy one. I do things wrong, do not attend church regularly, and do not pray or read the Bible as much as I should. I could go on forever. But isn’t that what a Christian is? One who strives to serve Christ at his best, and struggles with it every day. All that time you know, he has already forgiven you and as long as you have faith, you will be saved. Oh what a wonderful feeling. This desire is most important of all and of course you can see why. Because He is the maker of all and without him I would not have all the blessings I do today. So there you go. The Wife of Bath desired what the hag already had. That was power. And also there was beauty and happiness, which the hag had obtained. I desired Christ and family. I have both, but will always have a few kinks to work out. Desire is a personal thing and each person wants something different. Even though we all want something different, the wishes can be granted and you can be relieved. 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